Hierarchical Level

Hierarchical Level

Answer Example

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1. Atoms A. Human being; frog; dragonfly

2. Molecules B. nerve, muscle, connective, epithelial

3. Macromolecules C. all human beings

4. Organelles D. Great Barrier reef

5. Cells E. Stomach; Brain

6. Tissues F. Ca (calcium), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)

7. Organs G. flock of geese; school of fish

8. Organism H. lysosome, mitochondria, plasma membrane

9. Population I. neuron; erythrocyte

10. Species J. DNA, phospholipids

11. Community K. Water (H2O), Nitrate (NO3)

12. Ecosystem L. Grasses, shrubs, and trees growing in an old field


MATCHING SECTION #2 (12 points) MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. Match the Definition/Association with the Term or Concept in the table below. Type in the letter you select from the right column as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor. TERM or CONCEPT Answer Definition/Association

1. Gamete A. These cells do not have a nucleus, but do have a plasma membrane, a cell wall, and a nucleoid region.

2. Eukaryotic plant cells B. These cells have a plasma membrane and a nucleus, but no chloroplasts or a cell wall.

3. Golgi bodies C. These cells contain chloroplasts and a nucleus.

4. All prokaryotes D. These cells have a plasma membrane and a cell wall, and either a nucleus or a nucleoid region.

5. Chromosome E. DNA molecule with attached proteins

6. Crossing over F. a haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization

7. Eukaryotic animal cells G. the type of cell division responsible for gamete formation and sexual reproduction

8. Gene H. an interaction during meiosis in which nonsister chromatids exchange segments; results in genetic recombination

9. Mitosis I. help distribute chromosomes to the new cells during cell division

10. Plant and bacterial cells

J. package cellular secretions for export

11. Meiosis K. the type of cell division which is used in asexual reproduction and tissue growth and repair

12. Microtubules L. a specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait



INSTRUCTIONS: Provide the best answer for the items below. Each item is worth three (3) points. Please answer all questions in this section. Type your best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor. 1. ________ is the total amount of living organic materials or group of organisms

within an ecosystem. 2. Enzymes are biological ________ that mediate the conversion of substrate to

product, by lowering the activation energy of the reaction. 3. A ________ bond is an interaction between a partially positive hydrogen atom

and a partially negative atom with unshared (lone) pair of electrons. 4. _______ is the stage of mitosis where new nuclear envelopes form around the

separated chromosomes at each pole of the cell, the chromosomes unfold back into chromatin, nucleoli reappear, and the cell continues to elongate.

5. ________ is the movement of a substance across a biological membrane against

its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often ATP).

SHORT ANSWER SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth four (4) points. Total points for this section is 24 points. Complete 6 questions in this Short Answer Section. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor. 1. Soil pH determine what types of plants will grow the best. If soil is too acidic, lime can be added to the soil, and if it is too basic, peat moss can be added to the soil. You test your soil and find that its pH is 2.8, and you want to grow oaks, which prefer to grow in soils in the 6.0-7.5pH range. Would you add lime or peat moss to adjust your soil’s pH? Why? 2. When does a logistic population growth curve show the highest rate of growth? Why?

3. DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe four differences between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition, structure, and or function. Describe in detail each characteristic you chose in your response.


4. You are setting up a blood cell osmosis lab for a group of students and prepare three solutions: 0.05% salt; 1.2% salt, and 65% salt. Unfortunately, prior to lab, the labels fall off the solution bottles and are thrown away, and the bottles are mixed up. You tell the students that they will deduce the identity of each solution by interpreting the data they collect. Students place red blood cells into each of the three solutions; wait for 10 minutes, and then observe the size and shape of the red blood cells under the microscope. The internal solute concentration of red blood cells is approximately 1% salt. The students’ observations are summarized below in Table 1: Table 1. Condition of red blood cells in three types of solutions. Solution 1

0.05% salt Solution 2 1.2% salt

Solution 3 65% salt

Size and Shape of Red Blood Cells

Crenated Shriveled up Crinkly Tiny Spiny

Swollen; some have burst open Puffy Balloon-like Like a globe

Round and flat Disc-shaped Like a doughnut with a solid flat middle Like a soup plate

Based on the students’ data, which solution is which? Explain your answer. A. Solution 1 = isotonic; Solution 2 = hypertonic; Solution 3 = hypotonic B. Solution 1 = isotonic; Solution 2 = hypotonic; Solution 3 = hypertonic C. Solution 1 = hypertonic; Solution 2 = hypotonic; Solution 3 = isotonic D. Solution 1 = hypertonic; Solution 2 = isotonic; Solution 3 = isotonic 5. The brown bracts of the plant Monotropsis odorata resemble leaf litter, which affords them protection from predators. Describe four characteristics of life you could identify to distinguish these plants from the dead leaves they mimic.

6. A population of snails with either striped or monochrome (one-color) shells has become newly established in a new region. The snails are prey for birds that crack the snails open with their beaks, eat the soft bodies, and leave the shells. Researchers monitoring the area record the number of live snails and broken shells. Their data is summarized below:

Striped shells Monochrome shells Number of live snails 264 296 Number of broken snail shells 486 377 Total 750 673

a) Based on these data, which snail form is more subject to predation by birds? b) Predict how the frequencies of striped and monochrome individuals in the

population might change over the generations under predation pressure. c) Over time, a prolonged drought in the area favors snails that develop thicker,

harder shells that protect their juicy bodies from desiccation. What will happen to the birds that depend on the snails for food?


ESSAY SECTION ESSAY. Eight Essays @ 10 points each. Total points for this section is 80 points. INSTRUCTIONS: Choose and answer eight (8) essay questions from the list below. The full number of points will be awarded for accurate and complete answers. Partial credit will be given for less than thorough answers, so answer eight essay questions from the list. If you answer more than eight, I will grade the first eight that you answer. Remember to address all parts of a question. Do your own work in your own words. Submit your essay answers to Turnitin.com. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor. Indicate the number of the question you selected on the answer sheet.

Question 1. A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol-lowering medication, Drug A, on women who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results. One group of 160 women took a tablet containing 42 mg of Drug A for 90 days; 130 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10%. Another group of 160 women was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 27 of these women decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10%. a) What is the independent variable in this experiment? b) What is the dependent variable in this experiment? c) What is the control? d) What is the sample size? e) What is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on results obtained in this experiment?

Question 2. A dead opossum collected by animal services was collected from a

homeowner’s basement. The forensics lab wants to determine the types of food it ate just before it died. Stomach analysis reveals the following types of molecules: glucose, argentine, glycerol, galactose, glutamine, cysteine, and long chains of carbon with –COOH at one end. The lab determines that the opossum ate three out of the four types of large biological molecules. Which three types of large molecules did the opossum eat? Explain.

Question 3. How can the relationship between hepatitis B virus and liver cancer be

studied at different levels of biological organization? Give at least three examples.


Question 4. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. a) What is the function of each? b) How many cells are produced, and are they haploid or diploid? c) Are the products genetically identical to the parent cells? d) Gametes are supposed to be haploid. What two outcomes are the result of nondisjunction? e) How do genetic birth defects (caused by altered genes) appear in children and grandchildren of WWII atomic bomb victims, when the bombing victims themselves were only mildly affected? What specific cells must have been affected?

Question 5. a) The cells of your body are surrounded by water. The plasma

membrane of these cells is made of many nonpolar molecules. What would happen to these cells if the plasma membrane was made of mainly polar molecules? Why? Explain your answer. b) Many scientists feel that finding water on a planet is essential for the existence of extraterrestrial life. Why? Describe at least three specific properties of water that make it so critical for life.

Question 6. Predict what will happen in the following experiment based on what

you know about photosynthesis and cellular respiration. a) You place a plant alone in a covered airtight container in the presence of

sunlight. Assume a watering system is provided. What will happen to the plant (will it live or die), and why?

b) You place a butterfly alone in a covered airtight container with nectar and a source of water. What will happen to the butterfly, and why?

c) You place a plant and a butterfly together in a covered airtight container with food, water, and sunlight. What will happen to the plant and the butterfly, and why?

Question 7. a) Compare and contrast sympatric and allopatric speciation and give

an example of each. b) With the ability to clone animals, such as endangered species, their population numbers can be increased in a short time. How would cloning a population of animals from a one or a few individuals impact these populations from the perspective of the gene pool and genetic variability?


Question 8. Examples of chemotherapeutic drugs (used to treat cancer) and their cellular actions are given below. Explain why each drug could be fatal to a cancer cell. a) Drug A: masquerade as the normal building blocks of RNA and DNA b) Drug B: damages the mitotic spindle c) Drug C: binds to DNA and blocks messenger RNA synthesis d) Compare and contrast tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. Which

of these must mutate to produce cancer? Question 9. a) A genetic disease (designated by allele R) is inherited as a sex-

linked recessive trait. The relevant gene is found on the X chromosome. What is the expected genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio of a cross between a homozygous recessive male and a homozygous dominant woman? Explain your answer using a Punnett square. b) Huntington’s disease is a somatic dominant genetic disease. Two parents are carriers for Huntington’s; however, their child does not have the disease. Fully explain how this could have happened using a Punnett square.

Question 10. a) Why do food chains and food webs typically have only three to five levels?

b) Assuming typical efficiency of energy transfer from one trophic level to the next, describe how 1,000 calories in producer biomass might be converted to carnivore body mass. How many calories will the carnivore receive from the original 1,000 calories? Explain.

Question 11. a) The logistic model gives us some guidance about how much to take from a harvestable population. Ideally, we would like to maintain the population at a stable level over time, and we would like to be able to take as large a harvest as we can without depleting the population. Imagine that a goose population adjacent to an airport is harvested very heavily for several years until its size is just 10% of the carrying capacity. What level of harvest (high or low) could be sustained without decreasing the population further? Explain your answer.

b) Imagine that no hunting is allowed and the population grows nearly to its carrying capacity. Now that the geese are so abundant, managers decide to allow an annual harvest. What level of harvest (high or low) could be sustained while keeping the population level constant capacity? Why?

BONUS QUESTIONS (10 points) Instructions: Type in the letter that represents your best answer to the questions below. Each question is worth 1 points. Total points for this section is 10 points; no penalty for incorrect answers. 1. Which of the following demonstrates the correct use of a parenthetical in-

text citation formatted in APA style? A) According to Simon and Reece, roughly half the corn crop in the U.S. is

genetically modified. (2013). B) Glycolysis produces O2 even in the absence of oxygen. Williams, (Essential

Biology, 1987) C) Gel electrophoresis has many uses besides STR analysis. (Hampton &

McDonnell, 2014) D) According to Roberts (2012), chlorophyll pigments a and b absorb different

wavelengths of light. E) An endospore is a thick-coated protective cell produced within a prokaryotic cell

under harsh conditions (Concepts in Fungi, Morgan, Cincinnati, New York). F. None of the above. 2. Using the branching tree of life for bears depicted in the accompanying

figure, choose from among the following bear species the one that is most closely related to the sun bear.

A) spectacled bear B) sloth bear C) polar bear D) giant panda E) none of the above



3. For APA format, the reference sources at the end of your paper should be

A) numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text of the paper. B) listed under separate subheadings according to the type of source (book, film

journal article, website, etc.). C) listed first by sources with authors, then by those without authors, then by those

without publication years. D) in alphabetical order by title, regardless of the type of reference (book, film journal

article, website, etc.). E) in order of publication year (oldest references first, then the most recent last). F) None of the above. 4. A contractile vacuole is an organelle in single-celled protists that regulates

osmosis within the cell by collecting water that diffuses into it, and expelling it. In what environment would a protist with a contractile vacuole most likely live? A) in the atmosphere B) within the cells of another organism C) in fresh water D) where it can climb on vertical surfaces

5. Which of the following does not contribute to genetic variation?

A) the events of meiosis I B) the events of meiosis II C) independent assortment D) crossing over

6. A purebred plant that produces purple seeds is crossed with a purebred

plant that produces white seeds. The seeds of all of the offspring are white. Why? A) The purple allele is recessive to the white allele. B) All of the offspring are homozygous purple. C) The purple allele is dominant to the white allele. D) The alleles are codominant.

7. Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation? A) directional selection B) mutation C) stabilizing selection D) diversifying selection


8. Attached earlobes are recessive to free earlobes. What genotypic and phenotypic ratios are expected when an individual with attached earlobes mates with an individual heterozygous for free earlobes?

A) genotypic ratio = 2:2 …phenotypic ratio = 2 attached earlobes: 2 free earlobes

B) genotypic ratio = 2:1…phenotypic ratio = 50% attached earlobes: 25% free earlobes

C) genotypic ratio = 1:2:1…phenotypic ratio = 1 attached earlobes: 2: semi- detached earlobes: 1 free earlobes

D) genotypic ratio = 3:1…phenotypic ratio = 1 attached earlobes: 3 free earlobes

9. Which of the following journal articles is documented correctly in APA style? A) Madison, Portia Lee. “How exams affect heart rate.” Journal of Cardiac Stress.

26.2 (2005): 168-180.

B) Journal of Cardiac Stress. (2005). How exams affect heart rate. P. L. Madison. P.


C) Portia Lee Madison, 2005, How exams affect heart rate, Journal of Cardiac

Stress, Volume 26, (2), 168-180.

D) Madison, P. L. (2005). How exams affect heart rate. Journal of Cardiac Stress,

26(2), 168-180.

E) Madison, Portia L. (2005). “How exams affect heart rate.” Journal of Cardiac

Stress. 26.2 (2005): pages 168-180.

F. None of the above.

10. The _____ evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence

within other, larger prokaryotes. A) vacuoles and lysosomes B) Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum C) centrioles and ribosomes D) mitochondria and chloroplasts