Obesity Among African American Women
this paper will divide by three part:
This paper should answer the following questions (you can organize as you wish, not necessarily in the order below):
1) What is the health problem you will be investigating this semester?
2) How much of a problem is it, and who is most affected by it? Is the problem one related to primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention (see note below)?
3) Who is the specific population you are focusing on and what is their particular risk? This population should be named early on in the paper. Describe them by as many characteristics as are associated with increased risk.
4) How does the risk of your population of focus compare to that of other relevant groups?
5) Why is it important that this problem be addressed? How does this problem affect people’s health and wellbeing?
Literature Review (new section; 5-7 pages)
1. a) FOCUS AND METHODS. The first paragraph of your literature review should:
1) State the focus of this literature review (what is the research question you are trying to answer, and to which level of prevention does this research pertain?)
2) Describe the methods you used to conduct the review. That is, which databases were used? What search terms were used? Which terms were most useful? (Use at least seven search terms for a full search.) You may include any other relevant information about your methods.
2. b) FINDINGS. Present the findings of your literature review research. Identify the factors that influence risk for this health issue in this population, as revealed in the literature. These factors includes the contributing factors that cause or increase risk for the health issue. Discuss these factors at all levels of the ecological model. If you do not find factors at all levels, discuss those gaps in your Analysis section. Also name some protective factors that protect against or decrease risk for the problem, as identified in the research. You do not need protective factors at every level.
IMPORTANT NOTE: In presenting these contributing and protective factors, organize them in paragraphs by themes within each level of the ecological model. We will discuss this in class.
Each Ecological Model:
1)individual Level-personal behaviors
2) Interpersonal level-friends, family
3) Community level-neighborhood, where you live
4) Institutional/ Organization-practices, polices, regulations
5) Public police-government laws, regulations.
c) ANALYSIS. Your analysis should be 1 – 2 pages in length. Analyze the entire body of literature you reviewed in terms of its attention to the different levels of the ecological model.
1. Which levels of the ecological model are well addressed? Which are not addressed as well or at all? Which causal influences seem to be missed? What other contributing factors ought to be considered and why?
2. Very importantly, also describe how the factors you identified at different levels of the ecological model are related to each other. How do they interact?
CONCLUSION. Write a 1-2 paragraph conclusion to your literature review that identifies which factors are most important to address or influence given your chosen level of prevention. NOTE: This conclusion will serve as a transition into Paper 3 where you will describe your intervention and how it addresses those factors at that level of prevention.
Describe a proposed intervention that reflects the two theories you have chosen. Must state very clearly primary prevention is intended to focus upon.
The intervention should utilize the constructs of each theory and it should match the contributing factors from the literature review that you concluded are important to address. You may create two intervention( one using each theory) or you may create one intervention that uses both theories.
There are 3 key sections for this intervention part of the paper.
A) Theoretical frameworks- define and describe the two theories you are using to address this issue and why they are useful frameworks for doing so. What does each theory suggest needs to be addressed or changed in order to effectively fix the problem? Define the key constructs of each theory. Also, at what levels of the ecological model each theory focus? Be sure use citations when defining and describing each theory (about 2 pages)
B) Proposed intervention- what level of prevention does your intervention address(primary) and what does that mean? Who is target population? Which contributing factors does in this intervention address or change？Give a full description of your proposed intervention and how it work? How does the intervention reflect all the key constructs of your selected theories? (2-3pages).
C) Conclusion- How does your intervention relate to what you found in your literature review, and how does it relate to what you see as the most important factors contributing to this problems? (about 1 page).
THEORY FOCUS KEY CONSTRUCTS
Social Support Theory
(Interpersonal and community level influences) There is (or can be) a positive relationship between social support and good health. Emotional support Instrumental support Informational support Appraisal support Reciprocity
Social Cognitive Theory **
(individual and interpersonal level influences) Personal factors, environmental factors, and human behavior interact with each other to influence health behaviors Reciprocal Determinism Self efficacy Observational learning Outcome expectations
(physical, social, and self-
evaluative) Self regulation Facilitation