WEEK 3 discussion
Breathing, Heart, and Lungs
An anxious patient is having rapid and shallow breathing. After a few moments, he complains of a tingling sensation.
1)What could be the causes of this tingling sensation?
Anxiety can increase in those patients that are already having rapid and shallow breathing. Hyperventilation added to this can cause the tingling sensation due to a decrease in C02.
2)What are the various patterns of respiration and their significance?
Normal respirations are 10-20 is also called sigh rate, depth is 500-800ml “air moving in and out with each respiration, pattern is even”. (Jarvis 2016 pg. 442). “These values increase as a normal response to exercise, fear, or fever”. (Jarvis 2016 pg. 442).
Tachypnea Hyperventilation Rapid is shallow breathing. Has an increased rate greater than 24 per minute. This rate can increase with respiratory insufficiency, alkalosis, pleurisy, pneumonia, pleurisy, diabetic ketoacidosis, salicylate overdose, hepatic coma and lesions of the midbrain and alteration in blood gas concentration, but it a normal response to fever, fear, or exercise.
Bradypnea Hypoventilation: Slow breathing. Is a decreased but regular rate less than 10 per minute. Can be caused by drugs, increased intracranial pressure and diabetic coma.
“An irregular shallow pattern caused by an overdose of narcotics or anesthetics” (Jarvis 2016 pg. 442). It may also occur with conscious splinting of the chest to avoid respiratory pain and with prolonged bed rest.
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: “respirations gradually wax and wane in a regular pattern, increasing in rate and depth and then decreasing”. (Jarvis 2016 pg. 442). Breathing periods are 30-45 seconds with about 20 second period of apnea. Common causes are severe heart failure, renal failure, meningitis, drug overdose, and increased intracranial pressure.
Biot Respiration is similar to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, except that the pattern is irregular and seen with head trauma, brain abscess, heat stroke, spinal meningitis, and encephalitis.
3)Ethnicity and culture influence risk factors for heart disease. Do you agree? Why or why not?