What features distinguish proportionate stratified samples from disproportionate stratified samples?

1. What features distinguish proportionate stratified samples from disproportionate stratified samples? In which research contexts might one be preferred to the other? 2. If we want to conduct a representative national survey with approximately 2,000 respondents, with the goal of obtaining a relatively accurate idea of people’s opinions regarding an important national issue, why might it be necessary to oversample certain groups? For the purposes of our survey, why would we want to find, for example, more Caucasian women who are in a committed same-sex relationship with children, compared to any other combinations of demographic characteristics? Why wouldn’t we settle for a number of respondents who fit this group that is proportional to the size of the larger population (e.g., if 0.1% of people in the population fit this category, why would we want to recruit more than 2 respondents from our group of 2,000)?

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